FDM Fused Deposition Modeling
Standard [PLA] e Hi performance [ABS – ULTEM – PC – NYLON12]
The FDM printing process starts with a string of solid material called the filament. This line of filament is guided from a reel attached to the 3D printer to a heated nozzle inside of the 3D printer that melts the material.
Once in a melted state, the material can be extruded on a specific and predetermined path created by the software on the computer.
As the material is extruded as a thin layer of the object on this path, it instantly cools down and solidifies – providing the foundation for the next layer of material until the entire object is manufactured.
Stereolithography (SLA) creates 3D printed objects from a liquid (photopolymer) resin by using a light source to solidify the liquid material.
To create a 3D printed object, a build platform is submerged into a translucent tank filled with liquid resin. Once the build platform is submerged, a light located inside the machine maps each layer of the object through the bottom of the tank, thus solidifying the material.
After the layer has been mapped and solidified by the light source, the platform lifts up and lets a new layer of resin flow beneath the object once again. This process is repeated layer by layer until the desired object has been completed. There are two common methods today differentiated by the light source: SLA uses a laser, whereas DLP employs a projector.
SLS Selective Laser Sintering
[PA11 – PA12 – Alumide – CarbonMide]
SLS technology uses a laser to harden and bond small grains of plastic, ceramic, glass, metal (see also SLS), or other materials into layers in a 3D dimensional structure.
The laser traces the pattern of each cross section of the 3D design onto a bed of powder. After one layer is built, the platform which bears the bed lowers , another bed of powder is settled and another layer is built on top of the existing layers. The bed then continues to lower until every layer is built and the part is complete.
MJ Material Jetting
[High resolution Resins]
Material Jetting technologies are similar to inkjet printing, but instead of jetting drops of ink onto paper, these 3D printers jet layers of liquid photopolymer onto a build tray and cure them instantly using UV light.
The build process begins when the printer jets the liquid material onto the build tray. These jets are followed by UV light, which instantly cures the tiny droplets of liquid photopolymer. As the process is repeated, these thin layers accumulate on the build tray to create a precise object.
Where overhangs or complex shapes require support, the printer jets a removable gel-like support material that is used temporarily, but can be removed after the print is completed.
[Aluminium – Titanium – Steel- CrCo]
Selective Laser Melting (SLM) is the most common metal 3D printing technologies. Just like SLS, these processes create objects from thin layers of powdered material by selectively melting it using a heat source. Due to the higher melting point of metals they require much more power – a high power laser in the case of SLM.
During the printing process, the machine distributes a layer of metal powder onto a build platform, which is melted by a laser (SLM).
The build platform is then lowered, coated with new layer of metal powder on top and the process is repeated until the object is fully
formed. SLM requires support structures, which anchors the object and overhanging structures to the build platform and enables heat transfer away from the melted powder. In addition, SLM takes place in a low oxygen environment, in order to reduce thermal stresses and prevent warping.
LOM Laminated Objet Manufacturing
[Cellulosa Full Color]
It works pretty simply, the machine prints a slice of the 3D model on a piece of paper while laying down an adhesive. At the same time, a cutting blade traces the outline of the model, so once the print is complete the excess paper just needs to be gently removed. That makes it capable of printing in colour 3D items with the consistency of wood and. Because all of the waste is 100% recyclable, it is also one of the greener 3D printing options on the market.